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- Refined Granular Sulfur Form
- Refined Sulfur Lump Form
- Sulphur Bulk
- Petroleum Coke
- Steam Coal
- Other By-Petroleum Products
Granular Sulfur & Sulfur Lump Form
Purity in dry basis
- PASTILLE , which are smaller granules/particles
- PELLET, which are bigger granules/particles.
Commercially free from Arsenic, Selenium and Tellurium.
Refined Sulfur Lump Form
Refined Granular Form
This article is about the chemical element.
phosphorus - sulfur - chlorine
Lemon yellow sintered microcrystals
Spectral lines of sulfur
- Name, symbol, numbersulfur, S, 16
- Element categorynonmetal
- Group, period, block16, 3, p
- Standard atomic weight32.065(5)
- Electron configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p4
- Electrons per shell2, 8, 6 (Image)
- Phase solid
- Density (near r.t.) (alpha) 2.07 g·cm−3
- Density (near r.t.) (beta) 1.96 g·cm−3
- Density (near r.t.) (gamma) 1.92 g·cm−3
- Liquid density at m.p. 1.819 g·cm−3
- Melting point 388.36 K, 115.21 °C, 239.38°F
- Boiling point 717.8 K, 444.6 °C, 832.3 °F
- Critical point 1314 K, 20.7 MPa
- Heat of fusion (mono) 1.727 kJ·mol−1
- Heat of vaporization (mono) 45 kJ·mol−1
- Molar heat capacity 22.75 J·mol−1·K−1
- Oxidation states 6,5,4,3,2,1,-1,-2 (strongly acidic oxide)
- Electronegativity 2.58 (Pauling scale)
- Electronegativity 2.58 (Pauling scale)
- Ionization energies (more) 1st: 999.6 kJ·mol−1, 2nd: 2252 kJ·mol−1 3rd: 3357 kJ·mol−1
- Covalent radius 105±3 pm
- Van der Waals radius 180 pm
- Crystal structure orthorhombic
- Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
- Electrical resistivity (20 °C) (amorphous) 2×1015 Ω·m
- Thermal conductivity (amorphous)0.205 W·m−1·K−1
- Bulk modulus
- Mohs hardness
- CAS registry number
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of sulfur
|32S||95.02%||32S is stable with 16 neutrons|
|33S||0.75%||33S is stable with 17 neutrons|
|34S||4.21%||34S is stable with 18 neutrons|
|36S||0.02%||36S is stable with 20 neutrons|
Sulfur or sulphur ( /ˈsʌlfər/ sul-fər; see spelling below) is the chemical element with atomic number 16, represented by the symbol S. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. At normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid. Chemically, sulfur can react as either an oxidant or reducing agent. It oxidizes most metals and several nonmetals, including carbon, which leads to its negatives charge in most organosulfur compounds, but it reduces several strong oxidants, such as oxygen and fluorine.In nature, sulfur can be found as the pure element and as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Elemental sulfur crystals are commonly sought after by mineral collectors for their brightly colored polyhedron shapes. Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, mentioned for its uses in ancient Greece, China and Egypt. Sulfur fumes were used as fumigants, and sulfur-containing medicinal mixtures were used as balms and antiparasitics. Sulfur is referenced in the Bible as brimstone in English,with this name still used in several nonscientific terms. Sulfur was considered important enough to receive its own alchemical symbol. It was needed to make black gunpowder, and the bright yellow powder was hypothesized by alchemists to contain some of the properties of gold, which they sought to synthesize from it. In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was a basic element, rather than a compound.
Elemental sulfur was once extracted from salt domes where it sometimes occurs in nearly pure form, but this method has been obsolete since the late 20th century. Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum. The element's commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers, because of the relatively high requirement of plants for it, and in the manufacture of sulfuric acid, a primary industrial chemical. Other well-known uses for the element are in matches, insecticides and fungicides. Many sulfur compounds are odiferous, and the smell of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic is due to sulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide produced by living organisms imparts the characteristic odor to rotting eggs and other biological processes.
Sulfur is an essential element for all life, and is widely used in biochemical processes. In metabolic reactions, sulfur compounds serve as both fuels and respiratory (oxygen-replacing) materials for simple organisms. Sulfur in organic form is present in the vitamins biotin and thiamine, the latter being named for the Greek word for sulfur. Sulfur is an important part of many enzymes and also in antioxidant molecules like glutathione and thioredoxin.
Organically bonded sulfur is a component ofall proteins, as the amino acids cysteine and methionine. Disulfide bonds are largely responsible for the mechanical strength and insolubility of the protein keratin, found in outer skin, hair, and feathers, and the element contributes to their pungent odor when burned.
Anode grade coke
A grade of pet coke from a delayed coker (see same) low in metals such as vanadium, nickel and iron that is suitable for making graphite anodes for the aluminum smelting industry. If the metals content does not qualify as anode grade coke, then the coke is generally known as fuel grade (seesame). The choice of whether a coke may qualify as anode or fuel grade is driven solely by the crude slate of the crude unit upstream of the coker and the metals contained therein.
Generally presence of any shot coke (see same) and Volatility (see same)> 10% are unacceptable. Sometimes anode grade is also referred to as calcineable coke (see same) Ash
The residue remaining when all of the coke is burned off. It is mostly metals and silica.
Petroleum coke that qualifies to be calcined, i.e., generally non shot and low in metals that will qualify for anode grade. Calcineable coke is generally referred to as the available supply to calciners. Also known as green coke (see same).
Petroleum coke or green coke (see same) that has been processed in a calciner (see same)
A large rotary kiln (similar to a cement kiln) that drives off the moisture and volatility of green or calcineable coke (see each) so that the coke can be used for aluminum anodes, or titanium dioxide applications. The kiln receives the coke at the higher end where the coke flows downhill as the kiln rotates. At the same time heated air counterflows uphill from the lower end, driving off the moisture and volatile material
Crude oil contains a wide variety of hydrocarbon molecules, ranging from a single carbon atom (methane) to very long chain molecules. The lighter molecules that make up gasoline, jet and diesel contain a lower ratio of carbon to hydrogen than the heavier molecules. In order to convert the heavier molecules to lighter products, the heavier molecules must not only be cracked, but the excess carbon must be removed to reduce the carbon to hydrogen ratio of the cracked material.
Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Boiler
A type of boiler where the solid fuel is fluidized in a vertical furnace. The advantage for the pet coke industry is that 100% very high sulfur coke can be burned. The sulfur is removed by addition of limestone in the bed which forms an easily removable calcium sulfate ash.
A refinery processing unit that converts the residual oil from the crude unit vacuum or atmospheric column into gas oil that can be made into light products (gasoline, jet and diesel), weak (i.e., low energy content) fuel gas and pet coke. There are 3 types: Delayed, Fluid, and Flexi (see each). These are all basically carbon rejection schemes (see same).
A type of coker whose process consists of heating the residual oil feed to its thermal cracking temperature in a multi parallel pass furnace. This cracks the long chain heavy carbon and hydrogen molecules of the residual oil into coker gas oil and pet coke. Both are in a liquefied form in the mixture as it leaves the furnace and enters the coke drum.
In the drum, the coker gas oil vaporizes and separates from the mixture. It is directed to a fractionation column where it is separated into the desirable boiling point fractions. The liquid coke solidifies in the drum as it cools and the velocity slows down.
After the drum is full of the solidified coke, the hot mixture from the furnace is switched to a second drum. While the second drum is filling, the full drum is steamed to further reduce hydrocarbon content of the pet coke, and then water quenched to cool it. The top and bottom heads of the full coke drum are removed, and the solid pet coke is then cut from the coke drum with a high pressure water nozzle, where it falls into a pit for reclamation to storage.
Larger cokers have several pairs of tandem drums.
Contracts for rail cars, trucks and marine ships always include a specified time limit that the respective vehicle or ship will take to unload or load. The penalty for delaying beyond the time allowed is also specified in each contract. Upon completion of the actual load or unload, the vehicle or ship owner presents the customer with a demurrage bill specifying the time delay beyond the allowance, reasons for it and the $ penalty.
Dry metric or short ton
A unit of measure for billing pet coke weight, which refers to the gross coke weight adjusted for excluding the contained moisture content. To get this measure, the coke must be tested for moisture content (see same). Calcineable coke (See same) is frequently measured in these units. Also see Wet metric ton.
The energy content of coal and coke is usually specified in either BTU/lb or Kcal/kg. It is measured in a calorimeter that literally ignites the test sample and measures the temperature rise of the water bath surrounding it.
The flexicoker adds a third vessel, a gasifier, to the fluid coker to gasify the purge coke into a weak fuel gas. Coke is made in 3 areas: purge coke from the heater, and both larger and smaller recovered coke fines from the weak gas scrubbers. It is a “flexible” coker in that the gasifier can be run to make either more coke or more weak fuel gas.
A fluid coker produces more light product yield and less coke but the coke is higher in metals and harder than a delayed coker. The process is a continuous fluidized bed consisting of a reactor and a burner vessel. Feed is sprayed onto seed pellets of coke in the reactor where it is coked. Purge coke is drawn off the burner vessel.
Fuel grade coke
Pet coke that competes with steam coal as fuel for a furnace, boiler or cement kiln. If the coke contains low metals, it may qualify as anode grade (see same). The choice of whether a coker makes fuel grade vs anode grade is dictated solely by the crude slate and the metals content therein.
Usually refers to calcineable coke, i.e, potential anode quality coke that still contains moisture and volatile material, i.e, before calcining.
Hargrove Grindability Index (HGI)
A measure of the relative hardness of the coke in terms of resistance to grinding. An HGI below 35 usually means a very hard coke requiring considerable grinding before it can be properly sized to meet burner nozzle specifications for the pulverized feed to the furnace where the coke will be burned. An HGI above 65 is usually recognized as a soft coke that will grind very easily.
Loss on Ignition (LOI)
Coke that is added to coal in a furnace originally designed for coal, may not fully burn in the furnace. Some coke particles escape the flameenvelope and are caught by the precipitators or bag houses. This LOI results in reduced furnace efficiency and some carbon contamination of the flue gas ash recovered.
The distillation processes of the atmospheric and vacuum columns result in almost all of the metals content of the crude to concentrate in the residual oil (the coker feed), and then further concentrated in the coker. Generally metals are not a problem to fuel grade coke buyers, other than vanadium to some. However anode grade coke buyers prefer low metals as the metals tend to reduce the efficiency of the anode in the aluminum smelting process
Pet coke as cut from a coker contains roughly from 7-10% moisture which the coke picked up from the steaming and quench operations. It is measured by heating a 100g sample of ground coke, until the moisture is gone, and then re weighing. See Wet metric tons and Dry Metric tons.
A special quality coke produced from aromatic feed stocks. It has a crystalline structure with more unidirectional pores. It is used for high quality graphite anodes such as for electric arc furnaces in the steel industry.
Due to mechanisms not well understood, the coke from some crudes forms into small, tight, non attached clusters that look like pellets, marbles or BB’s. It usually is a very hard coke , i.e., low HGI (see same). Such coke is less desirable to the end users because of difficulties in handling and grinding. It is also less desirable for calcineable coke because the shot tends to “pop” in the kiln reducing the thermal stability.
Most delayed coke is in a form that resembles a sponge, i.e, sort of bubbly looking.
Sulfur in crude naturally distributes itself throughout the range of the crude’s hydrocarbon molecules. However, the residual oil and coke usually attract a disproportionately higher Sulfur percent. Also, as most low sulfur crudes become extinct, refineries will run higher sulfur crudes thereby increasing the coke sulfur.
Volatility or VCM
Pet coke from a coker contains a small amount (<10%) of light hydrocarbons trapped in the pores of the coke. The amount of such volatility is generally related to the how hard the coker furnace is driven: hotter furnace outlet temperatures result in more hydrocarbons driven off and therefore lower volatility.
Wet metric ton
Fuel grade coke is typically sold in these billing units which is at a standard 8% moisture. If the coke tests for a higher %, the billing weight is adjusted accordingly.
Urea is an organic compound produced from synthetic ammonia and carbon dioxide. 90% of the world’s urea production is used as a nitrogen-release fertilizer. It has the highest nitrogen content and therefore possesses the lowest transportation costs per unit of nitrogen among other nitrogenous fertilizers. Other uses include: use in automobile systems for reduction of nitric oxide pollutants in exhaust gases emitted from Diesel combustion; it is also used as a stabilizer in nitrocellulose explosives.
Coal is mostly composed of carbon, as well as hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. Steam coal is also known as thermal coal and is the world’s most abundant fossil fuel. Its main utility is for power and energy generation. Throughout the years, it has been burned to generate electricity and heat. It has also served for industrial purposes, such as for refining metals.
Other By-Petroleum Products
Ribbon like parallel ordered anisotropic domains that can also occur as folded structures.
Lenticular anisotropic domains of various sizes that are not aligned parallel to the particle surface.
Ribbon and lenticular anisotropic domains of various sizes in curved and irregular layered arrangements.
Porous microstructure with walls that are generally anisotropic but with pores and walls that vary in size.
Ribbon and lenticular anisotropic domains arranged in concentric patterns to form shot-like coke.
Anisotropic carbon domains aligned in concentric layers parallel to the particle surface similar to an onion-like pattern.
Anisotropic domains are not aligned parallel to the particle surface.
Fragments of anisotropic domains.
Delayed and Fluid Coke
Isotropic carbon form closely associated with parent liquor. Higher in volatile matter than incipient mesophase.
Initial stage of mesophase formation. Transition stage between amorphous and mesophase.
Nemitic liquid crystals. Lower in volatile matter than incipient mesophase.
Gray, R. J. and De Vanney, K. F., 1986, Coke carbon forms: microscopic
classification and industrial applications: Int. J. Coal Geol., v.6,
Gray, Ralph J., 1991, Some petrographic applications to coal, coke, and
carbons: Org. Geochem., v. 17, no. 4, p.535-555
Gray, Ralph J. and Krupinski, Ken C., 1997, Pitch Production: Supply,
coking, optical microscopy and applications: in Marsh, Harry, ed.,
Introduction to Carbon Technologies, Universidad de